|Cytokine Core Technology
|Invitrx Cytokine Core Technology
- Noticeable aging appears when the body's ability to maintain healthy cells and repair mechanisms decline
- Invitrx's Cytokine Core Technology uses the same cytokines that your body already produces to supplement these declining processes
- Cytokines and growth factors are protein or glycoprotein molecules that signal cells to function at a healthier, younger level
- In the case of Reluma, for example, cytokines and growth factors stimulate skin cells to produce more collagen, elastin, and matrix proteins that lead to smoother, younger, healthier looking skin
Aging of your skin may be regarded as a cellular process that is partially genetically determined, and partially influenced by environmental factors (i.e. sun damage, air pollutants, etc.). The most obvious changes in your skin due to aging include wrinkling, laxity, dryness, and general thinning of the skin. Prominent wrinkling is caused by the loss of dermal collagen content, and a decreased rate of collagen production.1 Collagen is a protein fiber that is the basic building block of the skin, and provides skin’s structure (thickness) and resilience. As you age, your skin loses around 1% of the number of fibroblast cells and 1% of its thickness per year.1 Dermal fibroblast cells are the "construction workers" of skin, that function to produce new collagen and maintain your skin’s structure. Decline in the number of fibroblast cells results in less collagen production, decreased concentration levels of growth factors, and thinner, wrinkled skin. The rate of decline in fibroblast cell number and function is increased by sun exposure, and recent studies have also shown that sun damaged skin has 35% fewer blood capillaries than normal skin3 thus is receiving less nutrients and oxygen than normal skin.
Cytokines and growth factors, or high-molecular-weight peptides, are the regulatory biological (chemical) signals involved in the regulation of cell growth and function.1,3 Their function is to trigger cells to divide and grow, and to produce matrix proteins like collagen.1 In the skin, local skin cells produce and maintain most of its growth factor concentration levels. The TGF-b family (transforming growth factor-beta) is considered to be the most important growth factor group in skin because the majority of skin cells recognize their signals.2 TGF-b is a potent stimulator of collagen production, promotes the synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins, and inhibits matrix degradation (thinning of your skin).1,2,3 Other essential skin growth factors include PDGF (Platelet-derived growth factor) and GM-CSF (Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor), which can also stimulate extracellular matrix production, reduce inflammation, and promote the formation of new blood vessels.
The growth factors, cytokines, and corresponding functions delivered by ReLuma are listed in the chart below. Briefly, the TGF-b family (b1,b2,b3) is considered to be the most important growth factor in skin because the majority of skin cells recognize their signals.2 TGF-b is a potent stimulator of collagen production, promotes the synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins, and inhibits matrix degradation.1,2,3 Other essential skin cytokines include PDGF, GM-CSF, and Interleukins (3,6-8) which can also stimulate extracellular matrix production, reduce inflammation, and promote the formation of new blood vessels.1,3
TGF-beta Stimulates collagen production
(b1,b2,b3) Stimulates fibroblast collagenase and glycosaminoglycan production
Increases fibronectin synthesis
Inhibits matrix degradation
Facilitates cell chemotaxis
PDGF Stimulates fibroblast collagenase and glycosaminoglycan production
Stimulates wound contraction
Facilitates cell chemotaxis
GM-CSF Improves leukocyte function
Activates neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes/macrophages
Stimulates proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cell lines
Interleukins Regulate cell homeostasis
(IL-3), (IL-6) Stimulate proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cell lines
(IL-7), (IL-8) Enhance neutrophil functions
Function as anti-inflammatory agents and stimulate wound healing
Although each growth factor has different effects on skin cells’ functions, the combined action of multiple growth factors and proteins is required for optimal growth, stimulation, and synergy of skin cell behavior. For example, in order for TGF-b to stimulate fibroblast cell growth, the presence of PDGF is required.3 Thus the application of ReLuma, which contains multiple growth factors and proteins, versus other skin care products containing only a single growth factor, results in a more effective system for stimulating skin rejuvenation and regeneration. ReLuma’s combined delivery of multiple, natural human growth factors has the ability to stimulate fibroblast production of collagen, stimulate keratinocyte and fibroblast proliferation, enhance blood vessel formation, and work as a potent anti-inflammatory agent in skin. These processes may then function to increase skin firmness and elasticity, reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, increase skin miniaturization and vibrancy, develop a smoother, silkier texture, even out skin colors and tones, and may result in thicker, younger looking skin.
- Molecular Aspects of Dermatology. GC Priestley, ed. John Wiley & Sons, NY 1993.
- Arch Dermatology 138(11): 1462-70. 2002
- Growth Factors and Wound Healing. Ziegler, Pierce, Herndon, ed. Springer-Verlag, NY 1997.